PPP (Private Public Partnership) activities in applied research is carried out mainly through EFFRA (European Factories of the Future Research Association), SPIRE (Sustainable Process Industry through Resource and Energy Efficiency), ECSEL (Electronic Components and Systems for European Leadership) and DIMECC. All these organisations define the topics and objectives in which private and public funding is invested, and organize competitive funding calls or proposal creation and management.
Most of the PPP research is precompetitive. Public research funding is given by EU commission (EU) and Tekes (Finland). The funding decisions of these are independent and competition-based.